University is driving me crazy right now, I don’t know how I am going to survive. I just hope that I can some how survive, although I am not sure myself…

I am really angry at my lecturer, I have an assignment due next Tuesday and so far he hasn’t even uploaded the question it self! Well, although we can’t exactly do it because he probably won’t teach the bit that we need to do the assignment before the end of this week, hopefully, or one should really scream and demand to have an extension. But the annoying thing is that he rushes through the real hard stuff and spend a lot of the lesson talking about stuff that are not that really irrelevant. Such as how his accounting teacher used to whack them on the hand whenever they made a mistake. Yes, that is all very well, but what about using this time to explain the hard stuff even more. Gosh…

I am seriously wondering about the possibility of whether I can pass…I got a test on next next Thursday and I got a really bad feeling that he would probably only teach us the last stuff we need on the Tuesday lecture. (Wednesday is Waitangi day, so no class…)

Another thing is this: we should really be having one more lecture, but he just scratched that by saying that he can still manage to get all the teaching done and it is better for us to have some rest in between as that is what one need. Okay…even if he can manage, which I sort of doubt right now, I think it is much better to let us have more time before exam starts by finishing early.


歷史
巧克力最早是墨西哥人製作的。15世紀初期,西班牙探險家埃爾南多·科爾特斯在墨西哥發現當地的阿茲特克國王正在飲用一種可可豆加水和香料製成的一種飲料。科爾特斯品嘗後在1528年帶回西班牙,並且在西非的一個島上種植了可可樹。西班牙人將可可豆磨成粉,加入水和糖,加熱後製成的飲料被稱為「巧克力」。這種飲料非常受歡迎。不久製作這種飲料的方法被義大利人學會,並且很快傳遍了歐洲。

1642年,巧克力被作為藥品引入法國,由天主教人士食用。
1765年,巧克力進入美國,被托馬斯·傑斐遜贊為「具有健康和營養的優點」。
1847年,巧克力飲料中被加入可可脂,製成如今人們熟知的可咀嚼巧克力塊。
1875年,瑞士發明了製造牛奶巧克力的方法,從而有了現在所看到的巧克力。
1914年,第一次世界大戰刺激了巧克力的生產,巧克力被運到戰場分發給士兵。

[編輯] 製作
可可豆經過發酵、乾燥、烘焙、研磨,製成可可汁。可可汁可製成可可脂與可可粉,或選高品質的粗製可可汁經進一步加工製成巧克力。


[編輯] 巧克力的種類

[編輯] 依成份分類

不同種類的巧克力無味巧克力:質地很硬,作為半成品,製作巧克力餡等
含量:可可脂含量高於50%
組成:可可脂
黑巧克力(Dark chocolate):或稱純巧克力:硬度較大,微苦
含量:一般指純可可脂含量高於50%,或乳質含量少於12%的巧克力;
組成:可可脂、少量糖
牛奶巧克力(Milk chocolate):
含量:至少含10%的可可漿,至少12%的乳質;chocolate compound-不含可可脂的巧克力
組成:由可可製品(可可液塊、可可粉、可可脂)、乳製品、糖粉、香料和表面活性劑等材料組
白巧克力(White chocolate):
含量:不含可可粉,但有可可脂
組成:與牛奶巧克力大致相同,乳製品和糖粉的含量相對較大,甜度高。

[編輯] 依添加物分類
實心巧克力(Solid chocolate):
是指沒有混合其它果仁、餅乾等成分的巧克力,以片狀及塊狀居多。
混有其他成分的實心巧克力(Solid chocolate with inclusions):
是指巧克力中混有細碎的果仁、軟膠糖、餅乾等成分的巧克力。
夾心巧克力(Enrobed or moulded product with candy, fruit, or nut center):
一種包有果仁類內容的巧克力。
酒心巧克力:
是指在巧克力的中間加入了烈酒酒漿。
包有餅乾類內容物的巧克力(Enrobed or moulded products with bakery centers):
餅乾的酥脆和巧克力的細滑形成對比。

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autumnleaf16

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